Confusion Over Muscle Confusion

It’s hard to refute the popularity of training programs that feature random “design.” From workouts-of-the-day to “muscle confusion” we hear repeated claims that you’ve got to shake it up to see improvement. A thinking person isn’t going to fall into the trap of popular = smart, but as a society we do it all the time. I’m not saying these programs never work; I’m saying they don’t work for too many people, and they certainly haven’t proven themselves against “traditional” training methods when it comes to high-level athletes.

The sales lines go like this:

“You’ve got to change your routine a lot or your muscles will get used to the same one and stop growing.”

“You’ve got to ‘trick’ your muscles and keep them guessing.”

“If muscle growth hits a plateau, you have to ‘shock’ the tissue in order to resume progress.”

Muscles respond to stressors according to the principles of exercise, confusion is not one of these principles. For very low-performing athletes, random sessions work fine. Of course ANY program is going to work for these athletes, not just random programs. Think about every other biological adaptation we make; repeated stressors cause us to adapt. Random stressors are seen as traumatic, not something to adapt to. I’ll give you a couple of examples.

You know how you tend to move to a light jacket or sweatshirt instead of a coat as spring warms up? How even the slightest warmth feels very warm compared to the cold of winter? It’s because you’ve adapted (over several cold months) to being cold, so slightly warmer weather feels downright toasty. Same thing happens in the fall. We’ve become warm-blooded over the summer and have a hard time with cold. Randomly subjecting yourself to extremes in temperature will not help you adapt well to one extreme or the other.

Looking at another example, imagine you took all of the textbooks you bought for a college semester and instead of reading a biology chapter one night, followed by working a math chapter another night, physiology, etc., you just tore out all of the pages from the books and read them randomly. How well do you think you’d learn?

If you’re trying to get stronger or gain better endurance you don’t want to “confuse” your muscles. By doing random exercises with various loads for random durations, you’ll no doubt be more entertained, and you’ll probably be sore. But soreness should never be considered the mark of a successful session. Imagine a runner going out and having a terrible run, not able to maintain pace, and falling down a few times along the way. “It was great…I was really sore after that run!”

It’s true that we do adapt to certain exercises and motor patterns. But the effective method of breaking through these adaptations is not to do different stuff, but rather to intensify the activity, change the speed of exercise, or add volume to the workout. If you get bored easily, it’s probably a bigger problem than just your workouts, but consider cycling (changing them over the course of several weeks) workouts rather than changing them all, all the time. If you really want to see progress, you’re going to need to repeat similar exercises for 10, 15 or more workouts before you change patterns.

The more advanced you become as an athlete, the harder it becomes. Ask the best athlete you know how often they see a significant jump in their ability. The answer will probably be once or twice a year. And their method will never be confusing their muscles.

2013-02-01 The 1-Arm Pull-Up Plan

I write a lot of articles about getting yourself to the gym, about losing a few pounds, or about basic health. Here’s one on the other side of the spectrum… How about getting really strong?
This plan is built around getting an athlete to be able to do a one-arm pull-up. Although this program works well for this purpose, we have also used variations of this program to develop big strength gains in single-leg squats, one-arm push-ups, and other exercises. We’ve modified parts of an old Alwyn Cosgrove chin-up program for this, and the results are awesome.

There are two requirements of this program:
1. You must be willing to prioritize this program until completion. Trying to do this program in conjunction with another plan will not lead to success…in either plan. It is possible to train other movements and to do some other activity while going through this plan, but the priority has always got to be to do your pull-up workouts fresh.

2. You have to be able to do at least 8 strict (straight-arm to chest touching the bar) pull-ups. If this is not within your ability, this program can still help you improve, it just might not get you to a one-arm the first time around.
Weeks 1-4 – Diminished-Rest Intervals
Start by figuring out how many perfect pull-ups you can do. Don’t BS this one, either. It’s for your information only and if you fudge the numbers, you’ll only hose yourself when the workloads go up. Take your max number, and divide it in half. If you can do 10 pull-ups, your starting number is five.
Week 1. Three times this week, you’ll do three sets of pull-ups at your starting number (5 in our example) with 60 seconds between sets.
Week 2. Three times this week, you’ll do 3 sets of pull-ups at your starting number (5 in our example) with 45 seconds between sets.
Week 3. You’ll do 4 workouts this week. 2 times this week, do 3 sets with just 30 seconds between. The second two workouts are 3 sets with 15 seconds between.
Week 4. This week you’ll do pull-ups for three workouts. Do three sets of as many pull-ups as you can do for each workout.
Weeks 5-8 Loaded Pull-Ups
Week 5. Three times this week, you’ll wear a weight belt to do your pull-ups. Add as much weight as you can while still maintaining perfect form for the prescribed number of reps. This week you do 6 sets in the following rep configuration: 8-6-4-8-6-4. Obviously you’ll add more weight as the reps decrease.
Week 6. 3x per week, 6 sets, 7-5-3-7-5-3. Add two one-arm negatives on each arm at the end of the sixth set.
Week 7. 3x per week, 6 sets, 6-4-2-6-4-2. Add three one-arm negatives at the end of the sixth set.
Week 8. 3x per week, 6 sets. 5-3-1-5-3-1. Add a one arm negative on each arm after sets 2, 4, and 6.
Weeks 9-12 One Arm Training
Week 9. Three times per week, do three sets of two offset pull-ups. The offset is best done with a 24” long sling girth hitched around the bar. Grasp the bar with one hand and the sling with the other.
Week 10. 3x per week, 3 sets of 2 offset pull-ups plus 3 sets of 1 negative, done as slowly as possible.
Week 11. 3x per week, 3 sets of 2 offset pull-ups with minimal help from the low hand plus 5 sets of 1 negative, done as slowly as possible.
Week 12. Get good and warm, then go for it. If you don’t quite make it, take a week off from pulls, then start in again at week 5 for another build.

2013-01-01 Kill Your Weaknesses

I’ll start this article the same way I should start every one I write: If you’re happy where you are, read no further. If, however, you’re not totally satisfied with your body, listen up. Your habits and the weaknesses they’ve created have helped you get the body you now have. The quickest road to getting your body where you want it is to eliminate, once and for all, your biggest weaknesses.

If you look at what you do in training, you’ll see patterns. Although these patterns or habits are occasionally useful, most of the time they are responsible for holding you back, as well. You find a new training plan, play with it a few weeks, and slowly modify it back into what you were doing before.

How do you deal with limiters? The same way. You do a little hamstring stretching at the end of each session for say, two days, then you skip one, then eventually it becomes clear that you can’t possibly fit in all of your bench press variations if you waste all this time stretching.

Weaknesses are inherently problematic—part of the reason we have them is because we don’t like doing those things. I’d much rather talk about rock climbing than my feelings, so I’ve become very good at talking about rock climbing and even better at rationalizing why talking about feelings is stupid.

Weaknesses demand action. How much is your bench max going to drop if you commit to flexibility training for 6 out of 7 workouts? Maybe 5-10 pounds. How long is it going to take the new, flexible you to pick up those pounds next month? No time at all.

Your weakness-killing action plan should go like this: Figure out how much total training time you have in a typical week. Take that amount of time, and commit 75% of it to training your one weakness. Make it specific: “flexibility” is not enough— you’ve got to train for a very specific kind of flexibility, and one you can measure.

The other 25 % of your training time will be dedicated to maintaining all those things you usually do, but not trying to move forward in any one of them.

You have 4 hours to train each week? Good. 3 of those hours are going to be spent trying to get your lifelong hamstring inflexibility to go away.

Take a month and work the weakness, then go back to your “normal” training. The following month, reassess where you are weakest, and attack that for another 4 weeks. Stay after the weaknesses in this way, and soon they’ll be very hard to find. Ignore them, and they’ll put the brakes on everything eventually.


2012-12-01 Get ‘Er Done

Well, how did those resolutions go in 2012? Did you reach your fitness goals? Did you reach any goals, or do you have a sentence like the one below floating around in your head to make you feel better?

I would have completed x if y hadn’t happened, which is ok, since x is harder for me anyway because of my genetics.

The crazy thing about setting goals is that we all know almost everything that needs to be done to complete those goals. I’ll give you an example: Make sure you save at least 10% of your income. Put your money away in a diverse portfolio. Invest in real estate. Buy stocks when everyone else is selling.

Now, anyone who knows me very well knows I am not a financial advisor, but I have picked up enough over the years to know that the advice above is pretty solid. On the same token, everyone reading this article knows what to do to get stronger and to lose weight.

The problem is not knowledge, it’s execution.

You probably can grasp that we are better motivated by the avoidance of pain than the promise of happiness. You’ve probably even seen it in action. How often do you reward yourself even if you don’t quite earn it? My guess is it’s almost every day.

You might remember “The Alpo Diet” that we wrote about a few years back. The basic idea is you invite a dozen or so friends over to dinner, whip out a big can of Alpo dog food, and promise them that you’ll have them over again next month to watch you eat it if you don’t lose 10 pounds.

This, obviously, would work better than promising yourself a shopping trip if you achieved a goal. You’re taking that trip whether you lose weight or not. The idea behind the can of Alpo is called pre-commitment. Thanks to websites like, you don’t even have to invite your friends over to make a high-stakes commitment. The idea is easy: state a goal, set the stakes, get a “referee,” and tell everyone about it.

The trick is in the stakes. You’ve got to make it hurt. In fact, the more it’s going to hurt, the more likely you’ll reach your goal. The most popular commitment is a donation to the George W. Bush Presidential Library (I don’t see what the big deal is…I like comic books), but you can pick anything you’d hate to give money to. Just by setting high stakes, you are close to three times as likely to reach your stated goal.
If you are floundering, this might be your ticket. Log on to, wager $500 against losing those last 5 pounds, and see just how well you work when the heat is on.


2012-11-15 The Shoulds

Information sharing is an interesting business, especially when the information you’re sharing is information your readers already have. Like this:

You should save your money.

You should spend more time with your family.

You should spend less time in front of the TV.

You should exercise more, and do it more vigorously.

You should eat more vegetables.

You should eat less sugar.

You should talk to your significant other.

You should be involved in your community.

You should stretch more.

You should read all of these books before you read any teenage paranormal romances.

You should travel more.

You should learn a new skill every year.

You should call your parents.

You should eat more organic food.

You should eat more local food.

The problem is that all of this is a little too much to take care of. Pick one thing and do it. The more you do it, the easier it becomes, and then you can add another. Keep track of your progress, and you’ll be amazed where you get in a month or two.





Are we really working hard? – Good article from Alwyn Cosgrove

This is a great little piece from Alwyn Cosgrove.

February 22nd, 2012

I think there are definite parallels between work and fitness training. Over the past few years I think as a whole, in both areas, we’ve confused working “hard” with working long.

Think about someone you know who you’d describe as working hard for a living. Now – do they really work hard – i.e. back breaking, intense physical labor — or do you mean that they work long hours – nights and maybe weekends?

Working “hard” and working “long” are not the same. And neither one means working effectively.

You could make the case that someone who is working long hours and weekends to achieve their objectives may not necessarily be working hard at all – they may be doing completely ineffective activities.

In addition, their rate of actual quality work output may be very low on a minute-by-minute basis. Or quality output may not be frequent enough — so they are trying to compensate by increasing their total volume.

But just increasing the volume of an ineffective, low-quality (i.e. intensity), infrequent activity isn’t helping whatsoever. Effective, results-producing work is not dependent upon the total volume of work primarily.

It’s the same as effective, results-producing exercise:

Effectiveness first.
Intensity second.
Frequency Third.
Volume last.

Is your training effective?
Are you focused and striving to do more work/lift more weight/do more reps in the session?
Are you training regularly? (in all studies – frequency of exposure to a stimulus is a primary key to success).

Once you have effective and technically sound exercise, performed with appropriate intensity on a regular basis – then you can think about adding volume. Doing more work can’t replace effectiveness, intensity or consistency.


Eat Right for Your Body Type

If you’ve ever tried a diet, you’ll know where I’m coming from. Once in a while, the diet just doesn’t work. Unlike all the great stories in the diet book you bought, you just don’t seem to have lost the 10 (or more!) pounds promised in the first week. You start to feel bad, start to stray from the diet, and soon enough you’re back where you were, but $24.95 poorer.
Over the past several years, we’ve seen people successful on a variety of nutrition plans. The unfortunate side note is there’s no consistent “success secret” common to all of these people. So we keep searching for the best way.

Somehow, in this search, I end up reading even the most ridiculous diet books. One of them was Eat Right For Your Blood Type, which is mostly a pile of poo based on pseudoscience. Not surprisingly, none of the “science” cited by the author has been backed up by any legitimate scientist anywhere. Add to this a list of diets such as the cabbage diet, the cottage cheese diet, and The Russian Air Force diet. Needless to say, when I heard Dr. John Berardi start to talk about eating right for your body type, I almost dismissed him altogether.

Before I quit listening, though, he described how a person’s body type, or somatotype, whether it be ectomorph, endomorph, or mesomorph, can steer the way one should eat. Naturally, not everyone falls neatly into one of these categories, but most of us will be able to find a best fit. Note that even though you might be carrying extra fat, you’re not automatically an endomorph. Likewise, just having a low body fat number does not make you an ectomorph.
The take-home here is that no diet is ideal for everyone, and you might very well need to eat differently than your spouse or best friend to see good results. What Dr. Berardi recommends is as follows:

Ectomorphs – or, those thin individuals characterized by smaller bone structures, and typically thinner limbs – think endurance athlete – tend to be thyroid and SNS dominant with either higher output or higher sensitivity to catecholamines – like epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Interestingly, this profile is linked to a fast metabolic rate and a higher carbohydrate tolerance.
As a result, ectomorphs do best on higher carb diets with moderate protein intake and lower fat in the diet. A typical ballpark for this type of athlete would be around 55% carbs in the diet, 25% protein, and 20% fat
Mesomorphs – or those individuals characterized by a medium sized bone structure and athletic bodies holding a significant amount of lean mass – think gymnasts – tend to be testosterone and growth hormone dominant.
This profile obviously leads to a propensity for muscle gain and the maintenance of a low body fat.
As a result, mesomorphs typically do best on a mixed diet, consisting of a good balance of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Indeed, in this type of individual, a zone-style diet works quite well. And this would consist of about 40% carbohydrate in the diet, 30% protein, and 30% fat.
Endomorphs – or those individuals characterized by a larger bone structure with higher amounts of total body mass and fat mass – think power lifters – tend to be insulin dominant.
This profile leads to a greater propensity to store energy – both in lean as well as fat compartments. It also leads to a lower carbohydrate tolerance.
As a result, endomorphs typically do best on a higher fat and protein intake with carbohydrates being better controlled. A typical range for this type of athlete would be around 25% carbs in the diet, 35% protein, and 40% fat.

Dr. Berardi’s advice is not a fool-proof, perfect diet plan. It is a starting point to think through what you’re doing and how you might fix it. If you’re confused, I’m not surprised. I study this crap all the time and I still get mixed up. Bottom line: If you feel great and like the way you look, keep doing what you’re doing. If you’re not happy with your health and the way you look, make a change, but be smart about it.


Train Like You


The easiest thing in the world is to believe you’re right. One of the best pieces of advice I’ve ever heard is “Don’t believe everything you read, and don’t just read what you already believe.” In the world of training and conditioning, you can find a way to support almost any one of your pet theories.

Is running good for your knees or bad for your knees? Runner’s World will tell you one thing, and Bicycling might tell you another. You can go one level higher, and find “scientific” support for both ideas. Is walking effective for weight loss? Is CrossFit the be-all-end-all of conditioning programs? Does the Ideal Protein Diet work? Adkins?
The answer to each of these questions is most definitely “yes.” And, more often, “no.”

Each of us is an individual with different needs and abilities and experience. To try to fit yourself into any fixed program is likely to end in frustration. The better plan is to look at what you really want to get done, figure out a way to measure it, and build a plan to improve those measurements. Maybe eating fewer carbohydrates will help and maybe walking will improve your results, but maybe you need something different. Maybe you need to train like you.

What we know beyond doubt is that even an ideal plan for a given athlete only remains ideal for so long. Any time progress stops, we need to look for the “weak links” and focus on them. Every three to five weeks, an athlete needs to “unload” or rest to see future progress. More importantly, every person should be working hard enough that this unloading period feels necessary. Most importantly, each athlete needs to understand that boredom and injury come not from training too much, but from training wrong.

We’ve been training wrong for years. Don’t misunderstand; every coach does the best he can with the tools he has. The difficulty lies in getting the tools and learning to use them.

When I first started training clients, it was in a big warehouse-style gym with loads of machines and a few dumbbells. We used machines and dumbbells. We generally did 3 sets of each exercise about 3 times a week and assigned three hours of “cardio” on off-days. The success rate was terrible, but the trainers at the gym didn’t care because there was a virtually endless supply of “prospects”; new members looking for help in the gym. A plan like this still might work for a few exercisers, but no one I train wants to spend 3 hours on the damned elliptical every week.
We also used to think that fatigue and soreness were the hallmarks of a good workout. What we now know (also beyond a doubt) is that the effectiveness of training is not measured by the amount of fatigue it produces but rather the degree to which it improves the qualities you are trying to develop. Think about it…if you rolled your car while driving recklessly you’d probably be exceedingly sore the next day, but I doubt you’d consider it good training. Likewise, sitting on a plane all day can be very fatiguing…and you know how fit business travelers always look.

A good training plan has two critical elements. One, it has to fit in your schedule. Second, it has to do what you want it to do. It follows, then, that a training plan that asks for thirty minutes a day is superior to one that asks for 60. It also follows that the plan that produces measurable results, whether it be weight loss, strength gain, or performance in a specific event, is better than just working out.
The take home here is to avoid scheduling more than you will actually do. We’d rather schedule three hours and have our athletes over-deliver than to schedule four and see them fail. More importantly, a plan has to work – if you build a plan around a goal and see no results within two to three weeks, the plan sucks. Throw that one in the trash and start over.

– Steve Bechtel